Seoul experiences the full range of Korea's four beautifully distinctive seasons. The yearly average temperature of Seoul is 12.2℃. Temperatures in Seoul show a great deal of seasonal variation, reaching as high as 38.4 ℃ in the summer and dropping as low as -19.2 ℃ in the winter. Influenced by the North Pacific high-pressure system, Seoul often experiences extreme weather conditions in the summer and winter months. In winter, Seoul is geographically influenced by the expansion of the Siberian high-pressure system and the prevailing west wind, causing temperatures to fall lower than those in other regions on the same line of latitude (London, Paris, and Lisbon).
The annual precipitation in Seoul averages 1,344.2 ml, which exceeds the average amount of rainfall across the peninsula. Most of the rainfall is concentrated during the rainy period (monsoon period) from mid-June through mid-July when downpours account for about 70 percent of the total annual precipitation. About 28 typhoons occur in the Western Pacific Region each year, but only two or three among them approach the Korean Peninsula between July and October.
The total area of Seoul is 605.52 square kilometers, or 0.6 percent of the entire country. The Hangang
(River) flows through the city dividing the northern and southern portions. The capital area serves as the center for all political, economic and cultural activity in South Korea. Clustered around Seoul are a number of smaller cities, forming a continuous and sprawling urban area. The largest concentration of the nation's industries are located in and around Seoul. With Gimpo
International Airport located on the western outskirts of Seoul, the newly built Incheon
International Airport, and railroad networks that connect to all parts of the country, the capital area serves as South Korea's transportation hub and gateway to the world. Due to its strategic importance, the Seoul dialect is the nation's standard language.
As of 2005, Seoul boasted a population of 10,297,004, accounting for about a quarter of the total national population. In terms of gender proportion (excluding foreigners), women (5,173,266) slightly outnumber men (5,123,738). Since becoming the nation's capital in 1394. The number of foreign residents in Seoul as of 2005 was 129,660, or approximately 1.3 % of Seoul's total population. This number included 77,881 Chinese, 11,487 Americans, and 6,710 Japanese. The foreign population in Seoul is currently composed of more than 90 different nationalities, forming a small global village.
Resources in Seoul for first-hand study are plentiful. The city offers museums, palaces, libraries, and living memorials of Korean culture and history. Seoul is the former capital of the Joseon Dynasty, and the history of the bygone era remains alive at the Gyeongbok Palace, Deoksu Palace, and Changgyeong Palace. The National Museum, the Folklore Museum, the various university museums, and several Buddhist temples lying just outside the old city walls offer a glimpse into more than 4000 years of Korea’s past. Art galleries, music and drama festivals, theaters, and thousands of Christian churches depict modern Korean culture, offering an intricate blend of old and new. These and other buildings such as ministries, government offices, embassies, and department stores are located just a short distance from Yonsei University. Despite its rich history, Seoul remains extremely modern, serving as the center of Korean and International industries and emerging as one of the most wired cities in the world.